PSY-520 Topic 1 Review Questions
Complete the following exercises from “Review Questions” located at the end of each chapter and put them into a Word document to submit to the instructor.
- Chapter 1, number 1.8
- Chapter 2, number 2.14
- Chapter 3, numbers 3.10 and 3.17
- Chapter 4, numbers 4.17 and 4.19
Show all relevant work; use the equation editor in Microsoft Word when necessary.
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Chapter 1, number 1.8
1.8 Indicate whether each of the following studies is an experiment or an observational study. If it is an experiment, identify the independent variable and note any possible confounding variables.
- A psychologist uses chimpanzees to test the notion that more crowded living conditions trigger aggressive behavior. Chimps are placed, according to an impartial assignment rule, in cages with either one, several, or many other chimps. Subsequently, during a standard observation period, each chimp is assigned a score based on its aggressive behavior toward a chimplike stuffed doll.
- An investigator wishes to test whether, when compared with recognized scientists, recognized artists tend to be born under different astrological signs.
- To determine whether there is a relationship between the sexual codes of primitive tribes and their behavior toward neighboring tribes, an anthropologist consults available records, classifying each tribe on the basis of its sexual codes (permissive or repressive) and its behavior toward neighboring tribes (friendly or hostile).
- In a study of group problem solving, an investigator assigns college students to groups of two, three, or four students and measures the amount of time required by each group to solve a complex puzzle.
- A school psychologist wishes to determine whether reading comprehension scores are related to the number of months of formal education, as reported on school transcripts, for a group of 12-year-old migrant children.
- To determine whether Graduate Record Exam (GRE) scores can be increased by cramming, an investigator allows college students to choose to participate in either a GRE test-taking workshop or a control (non-test-taking) workshop and then compares the GRE scores earned subsequently by the two groups of students.
- A social scientist wishes to determine whether there is a relationship between the attractiveness scores (on a 100-point scale) assigned to college students by a panel of peers and their scores on a paper-and-pencil test of anxiety.
- A political scientist wishes to determine whether males and females differ with respect to their attitudes toward defense spending by the federal government. She asks each person if he or she thinks that the current level of defense spending should be increased, remain the same, or be decreased.
- Investigators found that four year-old children who delayed eating one marshmallow in order to eat two marshmallows later, scored higher than non-delayers on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) taken over a decade later.
Chapter 2, number 2.14
(a) Construct a frequency distribution for the number of different residences occupied by graduating seniors during their college career, namely1, 4, 2, 3, 3, 1, 6, 7, 4, 3, 3, 9, 2, 4, 2, 2, 3, 2, 3, 4, 4, 2, 3, 3, 5
(b) What is the shape of this distribution?
Chapter 3, numbers 3.10 and 3.17
3.10 During their first swim through a water maze, 15 laboratory rats made the following number of errors (blind alleyway entrances): 2, 17, 5, 3, 28, 7, 5, 8, 5, 6, 2, 12, 10, 4, 3.
Find the mode, median, and mean for these data.
Without constructing a frequency distribution or graph, would you characterize the shape of this distribution as balanced, positively skewed, or negatively skewed?
3.17 Indicate whether each of the following distributions is positively or negatively skewed. The distribution of
- incomes of taxpayers has a mean of $48,000 and a median of $43,000.
- GPAs for all students at some college has a mean of 3.01 and a median of 3.20.
- number of “romantic affairs” reported anonymously by young adults has a mean of 2.6 affairs and a median of 1.9 affairs.
- daily TV viewing times for preschool children has a mean of 55 minutes and a median of 73 minutes.
Chapter 4, numbers 4.17 and 4.19
4.17 Why can’t the value of the standard deviation ever be negative?
4.19 Referring to Review Question 2.18 on page 46, would you describe the distribution of majors for all male graduates as having maximum, intermediate, or minimum variability?
2.18 The following table shows distributions of bachelor’s degrees earned in 2011–2012 for selected fields of study by all male graduates and by all female graduates.
- How many female psychology majors graduated in 2011–2012?
- Since the total numbers of male and female graduates are fairly different—600.0 thousand and 803.6 thousand—it is helpful to convert first to relative frequencies before making comparisons between male and female graduates. Then, inspect these relative frequencies and note what appear to be the most conspicuous differences between male and female graduates.
- Would it be meaningful to cumulate the frequencies in either of these frequency distributions?
- Using just one graph, construct bar graphs for all male graduates and for all female graduates. Hint: Alternate shaded and unshaded bars for males and females, respectively.
Course: PSY-520 Graduate Statistics
School: Grand Canyon University